Health in Ireland, Key Trends 2016 provides summary statistics on health and health care over the past ten years. It also highlights selected trends and topics and includes new data which has become available during the course of the year. An important objective is to assess ourselves and our progress in the broader EU context. In this regard, several tables and graphs are presented comparing Ireland with the 28 Member States of the EU. The booklet is divided into six chapters ranging across population, life expectancy and health status through to health care delivery, staffing and costs. Rapid ageing of the population in conjunction with lifestyle-related health threats present major challenges now and for the future in sustaining and further improving health and health services in Ireland.