Comparison at the first prenatal visit of the maternal dietary intakes of smokers with non-smokers in a large maternity hospital: a cross-sectional study
Pregnant lady and young child

Using detailed dietary and supplement questionnaires in early pregnancy, we compared the dietary intakes of micronutrients and macronutrients at the first prenatal visit of women who reported continuing to smoke during pregnancy with the intakes of women who were non-smokers.

Of the 502 women, the mean age was 30.5 (SD 5.6) years, 42.5% were nulliparas, 19.2% were obese and 398 (79.3%) completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. In the 50 (12.6%) current smokers, the micronutrients magnesium, iron, carotene and copper were lower (all p<0.005) whereas sodium and chloride were higher compared with the 348 (87.4%) non-smokers. 

Smokers reported lower intakes of dietary total folate (p=0.006) compared with non-smokers (i.e., dietary folate equivalents; intake from natural and fortified dietary sources) (p=0.005). Smokers also reported lower intakes of fibre than non-smokers (13.1 g (IQR 7.7) vs 16.3 g (IQR 8.5), p<0.001). The dietary intakes of former smokers compared favourably with non-smokers.

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